- in the pre-pubescent testis, flow can be difficult to identify. low prf, colour gain approaching saturation, and light probe pressure are required.
- post pubescent testes should have readily identifiable venous and arterial scattered flow.
torsion: absent flow in one testis when flow is readily visible in the other is suggestive of torsion.
orchitis: diffusely increase flow in the testis. if is increased in both the testis and epididymis, it is epididymo-orchitis.
infarct: segmental absence of flow. usually post trauma. there will also be segmental heterogeneity on b-mode.
- obtain a spectral doppler trace of both arterial and venous flow in the setting of suspected torsion. this may assist in the diagnosis of partial torsion, or tort/untort.
- there are suggestions that resistive indices in intralobar arteries will be elevated (>.75) in the intermittent torsion group.
pitfalls: flow must be intratesticular. not just capsular.